With the increasing popularity of 4K TV, HDMI2.0 interface is also becoming more common. 4K Ultra HD video interface usually has two versions: HDMI1.4 and HDMI2.0. HDMI 1.4 standard was released in 2009, and now it supports a lot of equipment, mainly for the applications with 4K × 2K (3840 × 2160p @ 30 frames or 4096 × 2160p @ 24 frames), digital data per channel is 340mbps, so the total bandwidth is 10.2Gbps; HDMI 2.0 standard was released in September 2013, for the applications with 4K Ultra HD image (2160p) which is 60 frames per second, digital data per channel is 600mbps, so the total bandwidth is 18Gbps.
Simplex Bidi transmission system includes one multiplexer and one de-multiplexer combined together into a single piece of equipment for bi-directional transmission over one fiber.
The simplex bi-directional system is a flexible, low-cost solution that enables the expansion of existing fiber capacity and allows operators to make full of use of available fiber bandwidth in local loop and enterprise architectures. It can suit many kinds of applications and network solutions, such as Gigabit & 10G Ethernet, SDH/SONET, ATM, ESCON, Fibre Channel, FTTx and CATV.
The module is a universal device that can multiplex optical signals (up to 18 channels) into a fiber pair or single fiber, we can provide full complete configuration such as 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 16, 18 channels for CWDM together with our CWDM transceivers or the wavelength converters, the bandwidth of the fiber can be utilized in a cost effective way.
CWDM Simplex BiDi transmission Solution:
1.Type A: CWDM Simplex Mux &Demux + 1-ch Simplex OADM over single fiber, in this situation, Tx and Rx use different wavelengths for SFP/SFP+/XFP transceivers.
2. Type B: CWDM Simplex Mux &Demux + 2-ch Simplex OADM over single fiber, in this case, with one circulator inside to realize bidirectional transmission, Tx and Rx use the same wavelength for SFP/SFP+/XFP transceivers.
3. Type C: In some cases, an array of CWDM BiDi SFP/SFP+ transceivers may be used for bidirectional propagation over single fiber, a cost-effective solution is suggested as below.
The outbreak of traffic and change of network structure make data center carry huge traffic.By 2009, 99% of the global communications network traffic was related to the data center, where network traffic in the data center accounted for more than 70% of the total traffic.Under this background,building a date center and improving date transmission rate become inevitable choice for Internet technology companies to develop clouding computer business and offer better service .More and more Manufactures have introduced their latest 100G optical Modules,and 100G optical module will enter a period of rapid development.The demand for traffic rate increases by traffic outbreak is sustained .The demands for 200G and 400G begin to sprout,and the world’s leading optical module manufacturers take the opportunity to start to layout and display its 200G and even higher speed optical module products.In the long term,integrated photonics technology (including silicon photonics technology) helps reduce product costs and is a major trend in the development of optical communications industry.
The optical modules used in 100G data centers have different program standards for different application scenarios and transmission distances,mainly including SR10 (transmission distance 100m), LR4 (10km) and ER4 (40km) launched by IEEE 802.3ba project group ,100G SR4(100m) launched by IEEE 802.3bm working group and 100G PSM4(500m)、100G CWDM(2km)、100G CLR4(2km) three MAS protocols launched by Industry. At present ,single-channel 25G transmission rate is the mainstream program for 100G optical modules.
This standard mainly aims at 100G short distance (~100m) optical communication application,composed of four 25G single channels ,using 850nm VCSEL laser type and multi-mode fiber.Due to the wide spectrum of VCSEL laser and bend loss of multi-mode fiber,the transmission distance of the 100G SR4 optical module is limited.It can only transmit 100m in the OM4 fiber,so increasing the transmission distance is the development trend of 100G SR4 and related optical modules. Currently based on 100G SR4 optical module standard ,it is mainly used QSFP28 package.
This standard is mainly used for 100G long distance (~ 10km) optical communication applications.It is consisted of four 25G single-channel ,using 1310nm DFB laser type and single-mode fiber,and mainly used for date center connection between external transmission networks and date center interconnection.The currently package mainly is CFP and CFP2.
With the construction of large data centers, the distance between data centers interconnection becomes longer. Based on the 100G SR4 optical module standard is difficult to meet the long-distance transmission applications, 100G PSM4 standard is introduced which the transmit distance can expand to 500m. It uses single-mode fiber as transmission medium,using 1310nm laser and single-mode MTP/MPO fiber connector docking.
This program is also used for expanding transmission distance in date center. Based on single - mode coarse wavelength division multiplexing(WDM)technology,the fiber optic transceivers use single-mode laser light source,usually 1310nm DFB. Four different wavelength optical signal are transmitted from a single-mode optical fiber to an external optical medium after the wave division multiplexer is combined with the wave. Comparing to 100G PSM4 program ,this one can transmit longer ,reaching to 2km.
From the above four programs,we can see that 100G SR4 is most widely used and its transmission distance is also shortest.Among them,100G SR4 QSFP28 optical transceivers is used most in date center,and 100G LR4 is mainly for long transmission distance .The transmission distances of 100G PSM4 and 100G CWDM4 respectively are 500m and 2km,both adopt single-mode transmission.
The price for 100G SR4 optical modules is between $100-200
100G PSM4 :around $300
100G CWDM4 :around $500
100G LR4 :More than $1000
From the 100G optical module features and applications, its product cycle will be much larger than the 40G optical module’s and possible to reach 5 years.During this period ,the increasing competition in the industry and the impact of silicon photonics technology are likely to bring changes in product prices.
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100G QSFP28 LR4 DML version and EML version
There are two types of lasers in 100G QSFP28 LR4 product:EML(Electlro-absorption Modulated Laser)and DML(Directly Modulated Laser);
Optical Eye Diagram Performance
Large Standard Margin
Small Standard Margin
To be discussed
Global Supply Situation
Comparing several aspects in the above chart no matter it is cost、power consumption or transmission distance ,we can target EML for carrier-class applications, and DML is suitable for data center applications
IEEE802.3ba defines the standard for 100GBASE-LR4.From the whole OSI,the LR4 product series has w/o FEC capabilities on the PHY, and the BER requirements for optical module products should be less than 1E-12 to guarantee packet loss rates for communications.
100GBASE-LR4 requires a wide range of TX parameters - more than 4dB for ER requirements,so it leaves space for DML as well as EML.Compared to the ER requirements of ER4 greater than 8dB, so it can only use EML, and DML is not up to this modulation depth.
The only embarrassing thing to DML is the eye pattern.For EML lasers,the margin of 100GBASE-LR4 eye pattern template is at least 30% to 35% ,but 20% is already good for DML.Because the smaller DML eye diagram ER and larger jitter lead to eye template not as good as EML’s, but still in the scope of the agreement
EML Eye Diagram
DML Eye Diagram
The reception portion is less differentiated because the receiver sensitivity defined by the IEEE802.3ba is OMA.From the following conversion formula, it is known that RX_SEN (OMA) is related to the magnitude of the emitted light ER value.So when the EML and DML ER are different, the RX_SEN (Pave) will be different, but converted to RX_SEN (OMA) value,they are in the same range
RX_SEN(Pave) to RX_SEN(OMA):
Comparison of module power dissipation in full temperature range：
SFF-8436 MSA defines the QSFP module power consumption level, the maximum is 3.5W.In other words,because of the power consumption relationship, the QSFP28 LR4 with EML laser may not be used in the case that the design margin of the equipment power supply is insufficient
In general,DML LR4 products will gradually become the mainstream of 100GE applications.The only downside is that the application of OUT-4 has not yet been supported,mainly due to the higher rate of DFB lasers.If the DFB can be used at 28Gbps, the DML supported OUT-4 is just around the corner
There are two types of lasers in 100G QSFP28 LR4 product:EML(Electlro-absorption Modulated Laser)and DML(Directly Modulated Laser)